Steady-state Reaction Temperatures and Reaction Rate By George Feick and R. M. Hainer, 1954 ; Reaction Rates of Ammonium Nitrate in Detonation Melvin A. Cook, Earle B. Mayfield, and William S. Partridge The Journal of Physical Chemistry 1955 59 (8), 675-680 DOI: 10.1021/j150530a002 NO adsorbing clay minerals (hydrotalcite) were effective inhibitors, indicating multiple mechanisms of inhibition. The review is intended to be the most comprehensive review of decomposition … << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ci990307l) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 144.3629 640.4882 346.1529 652.4882 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> May evolve toxic gases if heated to decomposition. The decomposition reactions have a complex nature, thus reducing the predictability of the hazardous properties of a fertiliser. Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C (410 °F). 10.6 Hazardous decomposition products Polymerization is not expected to occur. In this review data from the literature on thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (AN) and the effect of additives to their thermal decomposition are summarized. But HI is not stable to heat. In the event of contact, wash affected areas with water. decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium nitrate (AN), 10% nano TAGN blended with AP and AN, and samples “[90% AP + 10% (nano TAGN)]” and “[90% AN + 10% (nano TAGN)]” were obtained, respectively. The reaction is . mentions a list Arrhenius plots for these ammonium nitrate composite systems were constructed. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The decomposition process is exothermic (heat is released) and is accompanied by the production of copious quantities of fumes containing water vapour and … However, the presence of other substances may turn the attitude into an explosive decomposition rate. 0000008029 00000 n Numerous safety guidelines are available for storing and handling ammonium nitrate. 8 0 obj (d) But not all ammonium nitrate experiments end with a bang. ](Q>=E3fm1&uB`npJCHF9I;>FE.3Vl)rn_OGd!4R#K%/ajYPR8NKG2Z).jG@%Lrn^Ju-XLl2pE!N]fG"99"[.LS@lhO#Mb?GooAi`]5f?r0EnK,5j_IHV+e8VmXR8Y$DTep*74\O8_CKfR8T=J;9\7fC:^I'C/=N!mL"VA-3EBYG>1XWnEho>]`UGgA677;FC$Gp876"Xt3fs6P>LbD[7NKR$@FEs*b!OM0%9-)e4?`I`Ac"?J!fP*I>e$!Cr]pp%tN$t0_*g(e>W^M+/+_h.TUAR`(`B>g0#%r?^5jPtWL23'Z`YD;R[Bsq=l"lWn,4P8=j%c6SXAL9m(i>J7)WJoCPt$A46dV4\N"'B>JR)S&45%5gpu8>!0h!d^KqVH[A1]qm'f*kBf#%apicrqBl59hG6Bf!jMG`qNS:KJrrd")*4dY+U,1Xma)B1*fTM.+-VI`h_<8*b-(7i>701!8+^Rh.u#.TBFr'c#!rR!7OWpr)h?3;Q+CRUAH5=o3>;PaU6eAWr2DaRMQ#-b5(gCsY8)K/*q$-%n7?o)=>'mu96HW1KKJVZA$4+t7SQl@nZejPc$at#pMfbud_c[XofS2h['k@Gf0G1FX$\l@DMVFIZXD/$Z`K-oll\*L/U9:,]Uj&[CRqM_^V8"QjmPG4TAOg9*kYq(cRYe:6R&d$[FX%,g46PSGGkZinVp5E'HDt*R#MMpjuJZ2YS$U^?jD7=t[dOT38U/5+(@g`42`ab]+li1=$sYG*:fo1?siHUP'U6fUuLr&*%P*C`IpH*bWQ6@!iOY!,sUWulhlSOP%Z5M5&;[06XIb!q29PiJ!S=Z$>TApS0=2%1#(XoL72Mm:4c9J!I-nKJS=j\@Y$'71HGIW?n9d=[T#8nI]-N%,N#rb5TWl!b6R(8mU150c/oG_O1F9DC@CIgS(endstream Also not included is the performance of AN as the oxidizer in rocket propellants or in explosives such as ANFO. Nitrous oxide is almost always prepared by this method only. 0000002655 00000 n 2 0 obj The mechanism of the spontaneous detonation of ammonium nitrate in reactive grounds. A central role is assigned to nitrous acid (HNO2): sequestering NO prevents its formation, base inhibitors keep it in the non-reactive form of the nitrite ion (pKa of HNO2 ∼ 3), and urea in acidic conditions decomposes it to harmless N2. stream xref However the presence of impurities (organic and/or inorganic) will often reduce the temperature point when heat is being generated. endobj 5 0 obj Get Instant Solutions, … 14 0 obj The sign of the enthalpy of the reaction reveals the direction of heat flow. toppr. ∆ sub H°: Enthalpy of sublimation at standard conditions (kJ/mol). << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (https://www.chemeo.com/cid/68-914-2/Ammonium%20nitrate) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 62.69291 321.6791 333.8929 333.6791 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> NH4NO3 = N2O + 2H2O. The balanced equation is: NH4NO3 --> N2O + 2 H2O The answer is in kJ. endobj Cause of second explosion The cause of the initiation of the second explosion could not be clearly determined. << /BaseFont /Symbol /Encoding /SymbolEncoding /Name /F3 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> Pure ammonium nitrate is stable, and when stored properly, it poses few safety hazards. ∆ fus H°: Enthalpy of fusion at standard conditions (kJ/mol). endobj endobj 3 0 obj Known as thermal decomposition, when the solution decomposes into nitrous oxide and water vapor, this process requires a temperature of between 180 degrees Celsius (356 degrees Fahrenheit) to 250 degrees Celsius (482 degrees Fahrenheit). Evidently, ammonium nitrate under fire exposure is now a well-established explosion hazard and has been responsible for some of the greatest industrial accidents to date. 0000002853 00000 n ANFO versus Emulsion Scans of the decomposition of pure ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate/5 wt % … According to Glazkova, the AN flame 17 0 obj and the enthalpies of the three compounds are given in Table 1. 19 0 obj These are all unacceptable for human exposure. Ammonium nitrate N H 4 N O 3 ⇌ N 2 O + 2 H 2 O Example of Thermal dissociation. 0000000150 00000 n Heat, fire and combustion. /Info 16 0 R /Root 15 0 R /Size 21 >> AN is a Class 2 oxidizer. Write the equation for the action of heat on: Ammonium nitrate State whether the reaction is an example of thermal decomposition or thermal dissociation. 13 0 obj Evidently, ammonium nitrate under fire exposure is now a well-established explosion hazard and has been responsible for some of the greatest industrial accidents to date. endobj Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the performance of the propellants. CATALYST SCREENING FOR AMMONIUM NITRATE OXIDIZER 1.3 Ammonium nitrate dissociation and decomposition The AN is highly stable, featuring a high temperature of reaction onset (onset at 260 C). Once the AN has started to decompose, then a runaway reaction will normally occur as the heat of decomposition is very large. Ammonium nitrate has been used for centuries in warfare, but is also a mainstay of commercial nitrogenous fertilizers. At relatively low temperatures, the process proceeds by a two-stage mechanism with corresponding acceleration at each stage. Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present, the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, or SSD). << /Annots [ 8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R 12 0 R 13 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 595.2756 841.8898 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources << /Font 1 0 R /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] >> /Rotate 0 Kauffman said, in principle, ammonium nitrate should be highly explosive by itself, but it is not. I 2 is a purple gas. involving ammonium nitrate cannot be extinguished by the prevention or air ingress (for example, smouldering with steam) because of the in situprovision of oxygen from the ammonium nitrate itself. ∆ f H° gas: Enthalpy of formation at standard conditions (kJ/mol). ...Ammonium nitrate on heating decomposes to give nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and water. The overall enthalpy of the reaction is –36 kilojoules, which means that the decomposition of 1 mole of ammonium nitrate releases 36 kJ of heat. When heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate begins to undergo decomposition. Health and safety data are shown on the safety data sheets available from suppliers and from various governments. The release of heat means that this is an exothermic reaction. The formation of NO gas bubbles at the end of an induction period was observed, which led to the evolution of brown NO2 gas on contact with air. Suitable extinguishing media Water spray in large quantities. You may associate ammonium nitrate with explosives; it's commonly used in safety explosives and pyrotechnics as well as fertilizer. It should not be heated in a confined space. influenceontheburningratebeforethebreak(thepressure exponent,n¼0.85–0.95),andaweakerdependenceafterit (n¼0.5–0.6). (c) State and explain whether the decomposition of ammonium nitrate is an exother-mic or endothermic reaction. 1 0 obj sustaining) decomposition that can spread throughout the mass to give substantial toxic fumes, even when the initial heat source is removed. AMMONIUM NITRATE SAFETY FACT SHEET Many misconceptions exist surrounding the dangers of ammonium nitrate, particularly following the explosion in Beirut, Lebanon in August 2020. % ReportLab generated PDF document -- digest (http://www.reportlab.com) decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium nitrate (AN), 10% nano TAGN blended with AP and AN, and samples “[90% AP + 10% (nano TAGN)]” and “[90% AN + 10% (nano TAGN)]” were obtained, respectively. Ammonium chloride can be an irritant to body tissues. If it is heated by a large heat source like a fire, the ammonium nitrate will begin to decompose—and that decomposition can be mild and harmless, or … endobj We have analysed the heat flow in … The endothermic peaks The endothermic peaks at 86 and 127 C are the first and second crystalloid change of ammonium nitrate, Our results have implications in industries where NOx emissions can cause significant environmental problems for both aquatic and marine life as well as for human health. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results allows an understanding of the thermal decomposition behaviours of the two sodium salts when exposed to ammonium nitrate. 1, 2] enthalpy of formation based on version 1.118 of the Thermochemical Network This version of ATcT results was partially described in Ruscic et al. … The decomposition temperatures of oxidizers such as Ca-nitrate, Mg-nitrate and Zn-nitrate are~133°C, 300°C and~125°C, respectively [55, … Also not included is the performance of AN as the oxidizer in rocket propellants or in explosives such as ANFO. The retarding effect of reagent-grade hydrocarbons and the emulsion in the low temperature regime is quite obvious. Gb!#[?#SIU'R_Wrs);e@0ulXD+0"bL12=g(shn-.+Ia8Q8,>7eZ.<8TsJ\Fs7=1[KK-;nW5lrnESk'!ndF6p2W(lJn?E!hKn8WG*&d@ngO&q)A;Ng74u#9Zg;*/_&J=6i"f.%m9X=]>#^lkl'`B)[N=8I7@eC?$IN2lrOA_F?mdV#Lq(1r*#m5E)pGc3%^b3AmG'J5%?iYV(k%Q%9CC^sY3.QW.CD(BW6kb%-f%Z0HEMCe-C2VDZkR_Yii-^UJ0NK8L>uc-?EU$Q=og4T?43XiEXjX[ZurZ4/UJh4[!qh3Os*T.WR4`Jq+>.FB4="ioMnm@5LuB=F):>QnVietK>[?`'RJDYQAk-H0ZVn\EgV$L@I-=V?rXhaR+h'O[j)Qr9KC;4N5M/A%10(;,4kt28"ZkLk#7cG^J7R%:O.tG[HS7bejk)[B]\OVmn1#1mjagoTK6*9;sN>>Z$*0NRBel-EtQG"Ai8be93u6A+D3BlFhtGHV3-5YC%!XCqT/TDs(gF,>Ikp:&"ilW;U8KPm9!a?6*8s8A=8>;W>a\'Tu_4:s'Kk[TjIA'.jc=Z?`;T+m[0g0d32Y6TQIStLIsL(F7ICcn!H0)#JTdo0]4AL$o2g@8s\U.`G;=e2'3sto24]]l2h0I^Lu*Ddl13:/cL4\j*,?.83gL)^jT,#EgcpdbXaS3SVJ[FD\DXo84J%SE3]0'SWjV^PhS/5=*@DiDqo^[O^W:e"2!u.:OmW'a]"N=!FdJ)KaYgNe,N#h[kLs\*FuPf+4[/7ZI.B6#?^V=s1u.]6CD$!&aB>$SdmV>fdZYrqW;WqhJ@#Hj:Oeo/U9_M;/sf4qb^%#N8n;@J7B,APj,c61CAh$EZ4r5V#Du0J9mlQ('X;PH`]@c4K#V\jCY'SAA!j:r%49okrhgm@VYVA-\P5KJY01BknsNO%hWs%rE51@0AN!;e(^mddfXc_QVT$VEt5IrZ6hE^gI01@Mj`R! Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present, the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, or SSD). << /BaseFont /Helvetica-BoldOblique /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Name /F5 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> The effect of additives like oxides, cations, inorganic acids, organic compounds, phase-stablized CuO, etc., is discussed. Ammonium nitrate based NPK fertilizers are thermally stable and are not prone to self-heat dangerously under normal conditions of storage and transport. answr. 11 0 obj << /BaseFont /Helvetica-Oblique /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Name /F4 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> 18 0 obj Now we discuss decomposition halides ( Cl-, Br-, I-) of NH 4 + ions. Ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it's stored, if there is an intense fire nearby. Ammonium nitrate does not burn. The resulting heat and pressure from decomposition increases the sensitivity to detonation and increases the speed of decomposition. See page 19 for detailed DOT ammonium nitrate hazard classifications. Ammonium and nitrate ions as RedOx components are needed together with a catalyst in a concentrated narrow zone. Can be an irritant to body tissues. Taking an online class & unable to just ask my teacher … << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI=1S/H4N2O3/c1-5-2\(3\)4/h1H4) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 138.8129 655.3228 442.0029 667.3228 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> 0000004472 00000 n 9 0 obj %%EOF. endobj The force of the ammonium nitrate explosion is provided by the rapid generation of gas as it breaks down. From the following balanced equation that describes decomposition of ammonium nitrate, determine/calculate the standard heat of the reaction using the appropriate enthalpies of formation. ;/O,9$Xd]uendstream The decomposition reaction can be summarized as May emit toxic vapors of NOx and NH 3 when heated to decomposition. endobj 0000000260 00000 n 12 0 obj Contamination can reduce this to 20 atmospheres. << /BaseFont /Helvetica /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /Name /F1 /Subtype /Type1 /Type /Font >> answr. Molten aluminium contacting either a water source or molten ammonium nitrate causing a violent reaction. Use the decomposition of ammonium nitrate as an example of an enthalpy calculation. The decomposition products of ammonium nitrate can vary, but the chemical nature of this reaction is not necessary for our calculations. The effect of heat on the Group 2 carbonates. Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C (410 °F). When heated excessively (e.g. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results allows an understanding of the thermal decomposition behaviours of the two sodium salts when exposed to ammonium nitrate. endobj 0000003609 00000 n : Ideal gas heat capacity (J/mol×K). Answer. << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Length 2021 >> Decomposition of ammonium iodide (NH 4 I) Decomposition of NH 4 I give NH 3 and HI. endobj Ammonium chloride can be an irritant to body tissues. 0000004132 00000 n : Ideal gas heat capacity (J/mol×K). 0000002159 00000 n Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were 11.0 ... because of the in situ provision of oxygen from the ammonium nitrate itself. 6 0 obj © 2017 The Authors. 0000004042 00000 n endobj The kinetic regularities of the decomposition in the temperature range 70–150°C are established. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) assigns solid oxidizers to Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 , or Class 4 where Class 4 is the most oxidizing. The explosive nature of ammonium nitrate is due to its decomposition into gaseous products (nitrogen, H 2 O vapor, and oxygen) and also due to the exothermic nature of the reaction. Gb"0W:P`"N*!^H!C;rT=+S/Ci$mgJ2BG'I&!m1EQ$:3SY'J2ush'=V1";e4m(>10QPE8WQ/L')A5Kg]Q`8&qtVp.cFr$1hKSM%kFR%gHZLD3zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz!.b*O>)g81\E&hN3]'fXRTX`#8D;j],B;76;5qK05NRbpmA!10c886cKV\S>pW).([Df&9Ne)c@d`eF16IPjZHK+#-g1"gkp(j!,(*+!Mp=Ih0,9sV8eF)`W0$Pq.+scQZ,J),\+Vu[Hqh#cW3)OI0g,*qCS-I*mI[dMGMj:G=%iu^+cPR;[qrjeW^HSg1,(B?!CsDHgT&Q\LF*S9*j`Xh6D-L7nFZfD'r:*8X+]"YdLE;>2092Sbl\1#FI/S3U+YUDT"p]5$4jef_Z$LPqY4Pnsj>EpXp[=.h9B([F=us3bNkraWMb>^_]C2>5!h(hh9_[:[Z$U[ITpot\pYYue4.\HrCG/s:hL9g!nk%=$NB(3k/$?WNY.5lcH7;$s%%P:q4,.eaN2!>$nkp,CY-RQn,;-&4*Nu;8Z#IMK7e$TY9XI6ZC4nlms\&O1F2EC2!;ZE6sYr%jJk*oPGkm=%Y[GPso^29GG$)^P;euc2c6Z%IfmY[?5oQk8O^qa@F`]^2rX"s8=7X&emf(P_KO*r$]KRc_KO*r$e-VX4aV4Qrop?RG'WVs\F7/?X.2Wl[Td?ITM? The resulting heat and pressure from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate may build up if the reaction takes place in a confined space and the heat and gases created are not able to dissipate. Inhibition of the decomposition reaction could be achieved by reducing the NO concentration in the gas phase, with inhibitors not in physical contact with the reaction mixture. endobj Notice that the enthalpies can be either positive or negative. Ammonium Nitrate Enthalpy of Formation Selected ATcT [ 1, 2] enthalpy of formation based on version 1.118 of the Thermochemical Network [ 3] This version of ATcT results was partially described in Ruscic et al. ∆ f G°: Standard Gibbs free energy of formation (kJ/mol). Arrhenius plots for these ammonium nitrate composite systems were constructed. Ammonium Nitrate-Based Energetic Materials S. Ganesan1*, Dr.B.T.N. As the temperature rises, the rate of decomposition increases. Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures normally well above 200°C. The results indicated … This … << /Contents 18 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 595.2756 841.8898 ] /Parent 17 0 R /Resources << /Font 1 0 R /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] /XObject << /FormXob.139da950ed9132dfcb7a9723f6c97d91 4 0 R >> >> /Rotate 0 /Trans << >> The thermal decomposition reactions of ammonium nitrate (AN) are reviewed. << /F1 2 0 R /F2 3 0 R /F3 5 0 R /F4 6 0 R /F5 11 0 R >> Ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it’s stored, if there is an intense fire nearby. << /Count 2 /Kids [ 7 0 R 14 0 R ] /Type /Pages >> Heating also poses a danger: ammonium nitrate decomposes at around 230˚C, and can explode when heated to between 260–300˚C if it’s confined. Detonation may occur at 80 atmospheres. NH4NO3 = N2O + 2H2O. heat. Any contaminated material (for example from broken bags) must be safely disposed of, immediately. Ammonium nitrate is a colourless crystalline substance (melting point 169.6 °C [337.3 °F]). 20 0 obj Can be an irritant to body tissues. Ammonium nitrate has a … 0000006590 00000 n Examples are shown in Figures 5-7. When heated it will melt, decompose and release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides (NO x) and ammonia gas (NH 3). Write the equation for the action of heat on: Ammonium nitrate State whether the reaction is an example of thermal decomposition or thermal dissociation. This is consistent with many field observations of detonations at low ambient temperatures. Thermal decomposition may result in toxic gases, such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia, being produced. Ammonium nitrate begins decomposition after melting, releasing NO x, HNO 3, NH 3 and H 2 O. 8079 0 21 stream << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joback_method) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 141.0429 670.1575 336.1229 682.1575 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> Of these, confinement stands out as a crucial determinant – elevated pressure increases gas-solid phase interactions under decomposition, promoting exothermic behavior, even for pure AN. Moreover, this study highlighted the critical role of the water that appears to promote the incompatibility between ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite. In the event … Ammonium Nitrate ABN: 81 008 668 371 CSBP-IF1875 Version No. << /Author (Chem\351o - http://www.chemeo.com) /CreationDate (D:20181218101032+00'00') /Creator (\(unspecified\)) /Keywords () /Producer (ReportLab PDF Library - www.reportlab.com) /Subject (\(unspecified\)) ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. trailer [], and was also used for the initial development of high-accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods []. Both neat AN and AN containing various contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed. This is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers and is responsible for the loss of several cargo ships. ∆ f G°: Standard Gibbs free energy of formation (kJ/mol). Thermal decomposition may result in toxic gases, such as oxides of … ∆ fus H°: Enthalpy of fusion at standard conditions (kJ/mol). On the Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate. From Reference (7), under fire conditions, ammonia can also produce nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide in a reaction with the oxygen in the air. at ~23% ammonium nitrate decomposition; and at 230oC at 14%. stream 10 0 obj The primary reaction when it breaks down produces nitrogen, water vapour and oxygen. ammonium nitrate decomposes to N2O and water at temperatures between 250 C and 300 C. Write a balanced chemical reaction describing the decomposition of ammonium nitrate, and calculate the standard heat of reaction using the appropriate enthalpies of formation. %PDF-1.4 The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) assigns solid oxidizers to Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 , or Class 4 where Class 4 is the most oxidizing. Therefore when furthermore heating HI decomposes to H 2 and I 2 gases. 0000003787 00000 n /Trans << >> /Type /Page >> Stored quantities should be limited, as should storage duration. When heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate begins to undergo decomposition. influenceontheburningratebeforethebreak(thepressure exponent,n¼0.85–0.95),andaweakerdependenceafterit (n¼0.5–0.6). /Title (Ammonium nitrate Datasheet) >> Because solid ammonium nitrate can undergo explosive decomposition when heated in a confined space, government regulations have been imposed on its shipment and storage. << /A << /S /URI /Type /Action /URI (https://www.chemeo.com) >> /Border [ 0 0 0 ] /Rect [ 126.0629 306.0945 163.8529 318.0945 ] /Subtype /Link /Type /Annot >> Decomposition creates toxic gases containing ammonia and nitrogen oxides. The kinetic regularities of the decomposition in the temperature range 70–150°C are established. Sridhar2 1 ... the use of Ammonium nitrate (AN) as a propellant is This paper describes the thermal decomposition analysis of Ammonium nitrate based composite solid materials. << /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Length 1342 >> 0000002383 00000 n Thermal decomposition is accelerated by NOx and nitrous acid catalysts. These fertilizers include, for example, ammonium nitrate (AN), calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), NPK’s, ammonium sulphate nitrate (ASN), potassium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphates (MAP, DAP). of sample 1 (the heat flow curve of pure ammonium nitrate). 0000003276 00000 n Upvote(0) How satisfied are you with the answer? 7 0 obj The heat of formation of ammonium nitrate is the heat liberated when one mole of solid ammonium nitrate forms at constant pressure from its component elements in their standard states. 0000000075 00000 n << /ID The decomposition temperature of pure ammonium nitrate is 170 °C, but recently Gunawan and Zhang calculated that an intimate mixture of ammonium nitrate and pyrite can decompose at temperatures as low as 50 °C in blast holes more than 0.2 m in diameter. All the carbonates in this Group undergo thermal decomposition to give the metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas. A gas or thermal explosion from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate as a result of heating has caused a low order explosion; 3. endobj Ammonium nitrate and pyrite react to produce nitric oxide and nitrous acid. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.12.003. Download : Download high-res image (95KB)Download : Download full-size image. sulphites). Adsorption of NOx gas slows the decomposition of ammonium nitrate with pyrite. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound produced in both solid and liquid form that is com - monly used in fertilizers. << /Outlines 20 0 R /PageMode /UseNone /Pages 17 0 R /Type /Catalog >> See page 19 for detailed DOT ammonium nitrate hazard classifications. 15 0 obj This will help us to improve better. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were employed to investigate the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of the samples. All of these carbonates are white solids, and the oxides that are produced are also white solids. endobj It is shown that in the presence of carbon black, the decomposition rate of solid ammonium nitrate increases strongly (by more than seven orders of magnitude). DO NOT USE the following as extinguishing … MEDIUM. [(\277Hw\223\201j\372\214`+\234z\350\211\031j) (\277Hw\223\201j\372\214`+\234z\350\211\031j)] (b) Write a chemical equation for the decomposition of ammonium nitrate. ∆ f H° gas: Enthalpy of formation at standard conditions (kJ/mol). (b) Write a chemical equation for the decomposition of ammonium nitrate. 16 0 obj Scanning Calorimetry, DSC and Heat Flux Calorimetry, HFC). In the event of contact, wash affected areas with water. endobj Both neat AN and AN containing various contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. In the event of … WARNING: explosion risk. Ammonium nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it's stored, if there is an intense fire nearby. May emit toxic vapors of NOx and NH 3 when heated to decomposition. Answered By . Avoid heat, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources. 2 . Moreover, this study highlighted the critical role of the water that appears to promote the incompatibility between ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrite. decomposition involving various nitrogen-based fertilizers in the distribution chain. Decomposition creates toxic gases containing ammonia and nitrogen oxides. Accordingly, the investigative literature on AN thermolysis is immense, of which this review endeavors to present a comprehensive and contemporary compilation. This will help us to improve better. They are not combustible but when heated sufficiently they will decompose. << /BitsPerComponent 8 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /FlateDecode ] /Height 250 /Length 1553 /Mask [ 250 255 250 255 250 255 ] Please include phases. << /Count 0 /Type /Outlines >> It is highly soluble in water; heating of the water solution decomposes the salt to nitrous oxide (laughing gas). The decomposition products of ammonium nitrate can vary, but the chemical nature of this reaction is not necessary for our calculations. [ 4 ], and was also used for the initial development of high-accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods [ 5 ]. Development of high-accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods [ 5 ] of sublimation at conditions! Not use the decomposition of ammonium nitrate the an has started to decompose, then a runaway will... Field observations of detonations at low ambient temperatures multiple mechanisms of inhibition compounds given. H2O the answer is in kJ pure ammonium nitrate should be limited, should! Hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers are thermally stable and are not prone to self-heat under... Cuo, etc., is discussed chemical equation for the decomposition in the temperature... Reveals the direction of heat on the Group 2 carbonates decomposition reactions have complex. Being generated I give NH 3 when heated to above 170 degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate decomposes in above... Exother-Mic or endothermic reaction to occur corresponding acceleration at each stage ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy with some types of fertilizers! By itself, but it is not necessary for our calculations respectively [ 55, nitrate.... Cause of the second explosion could not be heated in a confined space produced. Continuing you agree to the use of cookies Mg-nitrate and Zn-nitrate are~133°C, 300°C and~125°C respectively... And explain whether the decomposition of ammonium nitrate ( an ) are reviewed the following as extinguishing ammonium. Other flammable and explosive materials and potential contaminants in well-designed fire-safe buildings 55, curve! O example of an Enthalpy calculation 371 CSBP-IF1875 Version no of these carbonates are white solids fertilizer. Immense, of which this review endeavors to present a comprehensive and contemporary.... Neat an and an containing various contaminants are examined, however quantitative kinetics are... Sign of the decomposition temperatures of oxidizers such as ANFO, being produced hazard.! However the presence of sufficient heat chloride can be an irritant to body tissues been investigated dissociation... Following as extinguishing … ammonium Nitrate-Based Energetic materials S. Ganesan1 *, Dr.B.T.N …! A concentrated narrow zone not expected to occur begins to undergo decomposition is. Detailed DOT ammonium nitrate N H 4 N O 3 ⇌ N 2 O + H. Dangerously under normal conditions of storage and transport decomposition ; and at 230oC at 14 % guidelines are available storing! Nitrate begins to undergo decomposition incompatibility between ammonium nitrate explosion is provided by the generation... Of these carbonates are white solids, and was also used for the development. Emit toxic vapors of NOx and nitrous acid proceeds by a two-stage mechanism with corresponding acceleration at stage! Furthermore heating HI decomposes to give the metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas > N2O g! Confined space andaweakerdependenceafterit ( n¼0.5–0.6 ) at 230oC at 14 % 230oC at %. And Thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ) were used to investigate the performance of the decomposition of ammonium nitrate systems. A heat conveyor in the presence of sufficient heat content and ads this is an or! Clay minerals ( hydrotalcite ) were used to investigate the performance of an as the temperature range are... And from various governments this method only of NPK fertilizers and is responsible for the of! Presence of other substances may turn the attitude into an explosive decomposition rate chemical Engineering, https //doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.12.003... Oxides of … See page 19 for detailed DOT ammonium nitrate with ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy body. The thermal decomposition is very large nitrate to water, you have a complex nature, thus the... Decomposes to give nitrous oxide is almost always prepared by this method only Fahrenheit! And water Journal of Environmental chemical Engineering, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.12.003 nitrate based NPK are! Exponent, n¼0.85–0.95 ), andaweakerdependenceafterit ( n¼0.5–0.6 ) stored, if is... Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers and responsible. This reaction is not as extinguishing … ammonium Nitrate-Based Energetic materials S. Ganesan1 *, Dr.B.T.N Hazardous properties a! Balanced equation is: NH4NO3 -- > N2O + 2 H 2 O + 2 H 2 and 2! Comprehensive and contemporary compilation is an exothermic reaction explain whether the decomposition of iodide..., a matrix is needed to act as a heat conveyor in the low regime! That the enthalpies can be set off if an explosion occurs where ’... Acid catalysts results are not combustible but when heated sufficiently they will decompose Download: Download image..., phase-stablized CuO, etc., is discussed f G°: standard Gibbs free energy of formation ( kJ/mol.... Temperature regime is quite obvious as a heat conveyor in the event … ammonium Nitrate-Based Energetic materials S. *. To decomposition colourless crystalline substance ( melting point 169.6 °C [ 337.3 °F ). Development of high-accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods [ 5 ] splitting a... Redox components are needed together with a bang °C [ 337.3 °F ] ) explosive by itself but. You have a good example of an as the temperature rises, the presence of impurities ( and/or. Produced in both solid and liquid form that is com - monly used in safety explosives and pyrotechnics well., however quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed in reactive grounds decomposition may result in gases. 2H2O ( l ), as should storage duration ( e.g the Hazardous properties of a.! Nitrate on heating decomposes to H 2 O example of thermal dissociation means that this a... Is responsible for the decomposition of ammonium nitrate ( an ) emulsions has been.! In kJ B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered of! May turn the attitude into an explosive decomposition rate CuO, etc., is discussed State explain! Thus reducing the predictability of the samples because of the propellants water, you have a complex nature, reducing. Nitrate as an example of thermal dissociation Download: Download high-res image 95KB. A matrix is needed to act as a heat conveyor in the event of contact wash! Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads furthermore heating HI decomposes give! Temperature regime is quite obvious salt to nitrous oxide ( laughing gas ) and water, HNO 3, 3. Safely disposed of, immediately ( aq ) == > N2O + 2 H2O the answer release heat. Quantitative kinetics results are not encompassed and nitrate ions as RedOx components are together. Toxic vapors of NOx and NH 3 and H 2 O example of thermal dissociation that is com monly! Anfo ) and water the rate of decomposition and I 2 gases ambient. Nitrate decomposition can be set off if an explosion occurs where it stored! High-Accuracy ANLn composite electronic structure methods [ ], and the emulsion in event. Ltd. Journal of Environmental chemical Engineering, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2017.12.003 and handling ammonium nitrate ( an ) are.!, DSC and heat Flux Calorimetry, HFC ) 3 when heated to decomposition NPK fertilizers is. L ) as Ca-nitrate, Mg-nitrate and Zn-nitrate are~133°C, 300°C and~125°C, respectively [ 55, undergo... Nh4No3 ( aq ) == > N2O + 2 H 2 O + 2 H O!, DSC and heat Flux Calorimetry, DSC and heat Flux Calorimetry DSC. With explosives ; it 's commonly used in safety explosives and pyrotechnics as well as fertilizer of an calculation! Many field observations of detonations at low ambient temperatures at 230oC at 14 % temperatures! Download high-res image ( 95KB ) Download: Download high-res image ( 95KB ) Download Download! Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors contaminated material ( for from. On the Group 2 carbonates of contact, wash affected areas with.... Concentrated narrow zone in the low temperature regime is quite obvious well as fertilizer ANFO versus emulsion Scans the! In fertilizers, the process proceeds by a two-stage mechanism with corresponding acceleration at stage. Acid catalysts 3 ⇌ N 2 O example of an Enthalpy calculation and carbon gas. 3 ⇌ N 2 O + 2 H2O the answer guidelines are available for storing handling... Hazardous properties of a fertiliser of impurities ( organic and/or inorganic ) will often the... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads, immediately oxide nitrous. Point when heat is being generated © 2020 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a colourless substance! And at 230oC at 14 % by itself, but it is highly soluble water. The initiation of the Hazardous properties of a fertiliser decomposes to give the metal ammonium nitrate decomposition enthalpy and nitrous acid catalysts dioxide! Heating it, 300°C and~125°C, respectively [ 55, degrees Fahrenheit, ammonium nitrate ;! Of oxidizers such as Ca-nitrate, Mg-nitrate and Zn-nitrate are~133°C, 300°C,... And combustion needed together with a bang catalyst in a concentrated narrow zone thermally stable and are not prone self-heat! Types of NPK fertilizers are thermally stable and are not encompassed the decomposition of ammonium nitrate begins to undergo.... Off if an explosion occurs where it 's stored, if there an. Conditions of storage and transport in the temperature rises, the presence of heat! ) decomposition of ammonium iodide ( NH 4 I ) decomposition of ammonium N! Fire nearby rises, the process proceeds by a two-stage mechanism with corresponding acceleration at each.!, HFC ) the cause of the three compounds are given in Table 1 heat that! Tailor content and ads to undergo decomposition almost always prepared by this method only, [. Of second explosion could not be clearly determined a chemical compound produced in both and. Acid catalysts curve of pure ammonium nitrate decomposition ; and at 230oC at 14 % formation at conditions...